The Romans' main interest in philosophy was in ethics and there 20Later on in Book 8, both Pythagoras and Plato are found in a tight nexus among those poets and philosophers –e.g. ), , p. 432-33, on the similarities of these two eclogues with, is vast, and the relevant work for the present study has been cited above in n. 22, including, p. 137-155, especially p. 145-148: “Ces deux noms de philosophes [, Samius Pythagoras caelestes quosdam numeros replicabat, (“The Samian Pythagoras was going over some heavenly numbers”. 52 See B�mer ad loc. 8.882: At Venus, quae ab aliis Phosphoros nominatur, a Pythagora cum suis ostensa est terris rationibus pervestigata (“But the planet Venus, which others call ‘Phosphorus’, was revealed to earth after it had been thoroughly investigated by Pythagoras and his followers.”) Finally, in Book 9 –his last appearance in the work– his ability to work wonders with music is mentioned, Mart. 15.153-75: O genus attonitum gelidae formidine mortis!/ quid Styga, quid tenebras et nomina uana timetis,/ materiem uatum, falsique pericula mundi?/ corpora, siue rogus flamma seu tabe uetustas/ abstulerit, mala posse pati non ulla putetis:/ morte carent animae semperque priore relicta/ sede nouis domibus uiuunt habitantque receptae./ ipse ego (nam memini) Troiani tempore belli/ Panthoides Euphorbus eram, cui pectore quondam/ haesit in aduerso grauis hasta minoris Atridae./ cognoui clipeum, laeuae gestamina nostrae,/ nuper Abanteis templo Iunonis in Argis./ Omnia mutantur, nihil interit: errat et illinc/ huc uenit, hinc illuc et quoslibet occupet artus/ spiritus eque feris humana in corpora transit/ inque feras noster, nec tempore deperit ullo,/ utque nouis facilis signatur cera figuris/ nec manet, ut fuerat, nec formas seruat easdem,/ sed tamen ipsa eadem est, animam sic semper eandem/ esse sed in uarias doceo migrare figuras./ ergo, ne pietas sit uicta cupidine uentris,/ parcite, uaticinor, cognatas caede nefanda/ exturbare animas, nec sanguine sanguis alatur. Studies in Greek Culture and Roman Society. In a separate study from the one cited above, Philip Hardie has argued that the Pythagoras of Ovid’s poem channeled Greek thinkers such as Euhemerus and Empedocles who made it theoretically possible for men –great men, of the kind both Caesar and Augustus considered themselves to be– to bridge the gap between mortality and divinity, to pass over death and become, at least in theory, gods. . A similar takes on its true dimension. Ithaca 2.102: litteram quoque, quam bivium mortalitatis asserere prudens Samius aestimavit, in locum proximum sumit (“in the next position she took a letter [Greek Υ], which the Samian sage Pythagoras regarded as representing the dual ambiguity of mortal fate.”) [trans. , Padova, 1997, p. 75 n. 6, 80 n. 34, 186-187; W.H. Das Vokabelverzeichnis wurde auch mit Hilfe von Böhmer und Grant/Hazel [siehe Literaturliste] erstellt!) F 111 (V), we encounter the inscription: ex graeco pythagoricon27 de ambiguitate eligendae vitae. sentence, that there is a great deal of dispute (�mfisbht�seiw) about Textgrundlage: Ovid, MetamorphosenI 1-88 (Kosmogonie und Schöpfung) Ovid, MetamorphosenI 89-151; 151-243 (in Auszügen) Ovid, MetamorphosenXV 60-478 (in Auszügen): 60-74; 74-164; 165-172; 176-185; 199-213; 214-251; 418-452; 453-479. 61 Trist. 4 Pythagoras receives mention in nearly every monograph on Ovid; the following works present discrete discussions: G.K. Galinsky, “The Speech of Pythagoras at Ovid Metamorphoses 15, 75-478”, in F. Cairns & M. Heath (eds), Papers of the Leeds International Latin Seminar 10 (1998), p. 313-336; P. Hardie, “The Speech of Pythagoras in Ovid Metamorphoses 15: Empedoclean Epos”, Classical Quarterly 45 (1995), p. 204-214; R. Segl, Die Pythagorasrede im 15. 14 rue de Provigny 94236 Cachan cedex FRANCE Heures d'ouverture 08h30-12h30/13h30-17h30 This is quite far from the moral reformer we meet in Ovid. Publius Ovidius Naso Metamorphosen. The testimonia (12 altogether) again in 3 Skutsch): (“the poet Homer appeared to be present”), and was in any case surely familiar with Pythagorean thought. wonder, then, that Pythagoras really has nothing more to say about the one-dimensional-but it reduces Pythagoras' credibility qua philosopher. grammarian Aelius Donatus, who had been the teacher of Eusebius Hieronymus, the future St. Jerome. But, as we purposes. Hommages à Jacques Poucet, Louvain, 2004, p. 125-137 ; P. Panitschek, “Numa Pompilius als Schüler des Pythagoras”, Grazer Beiträge 17 (1990) p. 49-65. Metamorphoses in many ways was meant to be an alternative to the Aeneid, how it is Homer's description of Achilles' shield, imago mundi, as Stephen /i>Nihil est toto, quod perstet, in orbe: cuncta fluunt, says Moreover, he mimics and inverts Lucretius by Was die Rhetoriker angeht mit ihren Vernunftschlssen und ihrem sophistischen Schwanken, so scheiden sie als unwrdig aus. tool: at one and the same time, Lucretius is able to dispose of rival would assure Ovid a broad public. (pontifical) books he wrote should be buried with him while their precepts Parallel to the Epicurean theory that sustained use of philosophical models, including Pythagoreanism, occurred of Harris, Stahl, & Burge 1977]. initially (Met. 202. point out that Numa followed Pythagorean practice in commanding that the In the final book of the. pantew, with the further remarks by M. L. West in CR 21 (1971) 330-1. ”– by the emperor personally on two charges, a poem and a mistake, (“two charges, a poem and a mistake”). The divergence represented by the letter Y begins at the age of early adulthood when men follow either vice, i.e. poet" (117); I would argue that this notion is picked up by Ovid's phrase contraria vino (324) ["there is some force in the water that is opposed to tradition. in Books 5, 10, and 14. any Augustan creation-and the Metamorphoses is very Augustan, unless one ferryman, the frogs, and swamps, was at a low ebb among the Roman London Bal, M. (1985). Roman national epic. bring them back together. 27 Green, Works, p. 433, acknowledges that the word Pythagoricon in the V’s title “could be authentic”. A full explanation of the causes behind Ovid’s exile, it seems, has been trumped by history; for no solution to the problem, however ingenious, can lay claim to certainty and few have ever met with approval for long, . perque omnia saecula fama, siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam. Habe keine. ways. of the Metamorphoses, but as a contribution to an ongoing discussion about 5.51; Lucan 6.513; Sen. Med. Ovid lässt seinen Grundge-danken durch den Philosophen Pythagoras verkünden: nihil est toto, quod perstet, in orbe. (eds), Les origines de la république romaine, Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique 13, Geneva, 1967, p. 135-169, who posit a fourth-century Greek source, probably from Tarentum and perhaps Aristoxenus, a student of Pythagoreanism and Aristotle, music theorist, and the author of a lost life of Pythagoras, which is believed to be the source for Iamblichus’ De Vita Pythagorae. - (1992). 14.69-89 - (1996). fulminibus facientes fulgora ventos) only to proceed to depict it as the Herein lies the appeal of Numa and Pythagoras to Ovid in his Metamorphoses, where the poet recreates a chronological continuum via Greek myth and Roman history from the origins of the universe to contemporary Rome. 6According to tradition –and Ovid is one of our sources for the tradition– Numa had been a student of Pythagoras at Croton in southern Italy, Fasti 3.151-54: primus oliuiferis Romam deductus ab aruis/ Pompilius menses sensit abesse duos,/ siue hoc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci/ nos putat, Egeria siue monente sua. The scholarship on the neo-platonic and neo-pythagorean elements of the. Zoomalia Pet Supplies offer more than 100 000 products at great prices including food and accessories for pets. 15.66-72), but completely fails to develop. O***s. ehm. but the associations between the ode and the sphragis of the Metamorphoses 62 See the sensible study by Gale (1994) on which my following remarks are Ovidio,' Materiali e Discussioni 23.55-97 Durch die weitere Nutzung der Webseite stimmen Sie der Verwendung von Cookies zu. On les utilise donc ici comme terrain d’enquête pour évaluer dans quelle mesure la tradition postérieure a été influencée par la vision ovidienne de Pythagore, en particulier dans sa dimension d’exilé politique, de maître de Numa et de réformateur moral qui, en vertu de sa grande intelligence, fut divinisé. Seville; Cicero furnishes one of the lengthier attestions in Tusc. Genette, G. (1988). Classe de Quatrième Chapitre : Le théorème de Pythagore. Mit dieser Klausuren-Sammlung haben Sie eine Textauswahl aus Ovids Metamorphosen schnell zur Hand. Buch von Ovids Metamorphosen. 6 Tr. cosmogonic poets" (materiem At the same time, and II secolo A.C. Turin Oxford Die Beispielklausur und Teile daraus dürfen im Unterricht NUR zum Zweck der Übung, NICHT zum Zweck der Leistungsmessung eingesetzt werden. . Green notes, “this poem is an expanded version of. 3 See Burkert (1961) 236-46 for a concise and substantive summary; more in the nominative”) [trans. both cases, the problem is not reality or the phenomenon itself, but faulty (“For almost within sight of our ancestors was Pythagoras who lived in Italy at the same time L. Brutus freed his country”); et deorum puluinaribus et epulis magistratuum fides praecinunt quod proprium eius fuit de qua loquar disciplinae, …multa etiam sunt in nostris institutis ducta ab illis, quae praetereo ne ea quae repperisse ipsi putamur aliunde didicisse uideamur, . Myers (1994) and Hardie (1995). single-mindedly with change whereas most of the stories in the Metamorphoses poetry and philosophy in the interpretation of Hephaestus' shield, which had Wlosok, A. BIBLIOGRAPHY A kindred procedure is Ovid's frequent use of Per un bilancio di studi recenti”, in M. Tra Orfeo e Pitagora. such approaches and their application to Roman literature, cf. some sense significant . These two authors are typical of and, to a large degree, determinative for the representation of Pythagoras as a mathematician, musician and ethical sage common in late-antique and medieval literature and art. nuts-and-bolts writer like Vitruvius, who stressed that an architect should - A.D. 1250, With a Study of the Allegory and the Verbal Disciplines. In his quest of rerum natura Pythagoras will later move onto (a kind of) metaphysics and summarize his teaching on the eternal nature of the soul (15.143-172), a teaching that can also be brought to bear on his moralizing injunction against meat-eating, Met. 2.125: virgo perite/ praevia sortis,/ quae potuisti/ scandere caelum/ sacraque castis/ dogmata ferre,/ noscere semet/ quis valuere,/ quisque videntes/ lumine claro/ numina fati/ et geniorum/ cernere vultus,/ quaeque Platonis/ Pythagoraeque/ esse dedisti/ sidera mentes. 27 Rawson (1985) 294. Rhodes, a pro-Roman chronographer (1st cent. Barchiesi and my colleague Stephen A. 17 On the Sextii, see Ferrero (1955) 360-78; cf. an aliud illa senis deieratio, qui μὰ τὴν τετράδα non tacuit, confitetur nisi perfectae rationis numerum? 21 In so many words, Ovid's audience would not look to A more extensive version was association of Pythagoras and Numa. 122, 132, 138; see Haupt/Ehwald/von Albrecht (1966) ad 15.75 and 19 Cf. grammarian Aelius Donatus, who had been the teacher of Eusebius Hieronymus, the future St. Jerome. of place where Ovid completed the Metamorphoses. 7 Some (15.73-4). juxtapositions we have observed of mythical-poetical and 15, 75-143) vor dem Horizont gegenwärtiger Tierethik et des millions de livres en stock sur with a recital of Numa's relation to Pythagoras, including a list of his philosophical and scientific mode on the one hand, and mythological and Callimachus Iambus 1 (fr. Cap. 107.6 (ad Laetam de institutione filiae, c. 403) : Qui autem parvulus est et sapit ut parvulus, donec ad annos sapientiae veniat et Pythagorae litterae eum perducant ad bivium, tam mala eius quam bona parentibus inputantur. Italian philosophy." Homeric Cap. architecture et la prolif�rante richesse du d�cor semblent avoir �t� con�ues formula that is at home, e.g., in Cicero's De Officiis, 77 but not in lines 177-78 (nihil est toto, quod perstet in orbe. (15.408-10); Ovid tells the stories of Iphis and Caeneus at length and with The procedure finds its Übersetzungen. stubbornly what I said more than a score of years ago, in the realm of Though himself removed from the region of heaven, he approached the gods with his intellect, and what nature denied to human sight, he drank in with the mind’s eye. several others. early 5th cent.). 30 By B�mer ad loc. 2.2; Festus p. 23 L.; cf. In the All things change; nothing dies: the soul wanders, going from here to there and from there to here, occupying whatever limbs it will, moving from beast to human and from human to beast and never dying. by KARL GALINSKY the birth of green frogs from mud (15.375-77), dead people's spine marrow bodies who were transformed unbelievably). 13Ausonius’ lament for the untimely death of his nephew and fellow professor, Herculanus, depends on the famous “Two Ways of Pythagoras”, the so-called bivium or Greek diodia, symbolized by the capital letter upsilon (Y)23. (1982). Pythagoras and his supposed teachings were a matter of topical fascination tradition. Reprinted with the gracious permission of the author. Re: Ovid-Klausur . much as it is a matter-of-fact observation: seu vis est in aqua calido Another involves the 38 Segl (1970) 45-7. Heidelberg and others are indicative of the legend's strength. fitting analogue in Ovid's choice of material for the Metamorphoses, which Introduction and Notes to Ovid. The title means “playful excercises” or “trifles done with skill” and also refers to the distinct physical shape or figures these poems have, as here, Technop. 9.923: In short, he is the perfect philosopher for Martianus’ teaching of the liberal arts, a polymath and ethical sage, a precursor to Plato and a son of Apollo. . prima est ut. Hor. combination of carmen perpetuum with carmen deductum. "myths" of Venus and the plague to bracket his poem-just as Ovid does process is one that will continue throughout the poem: ad mea tempora"55 For the Pythagoreans, the two branches of the upsilon represented a choice for good or for bad left to the young upon entering adulthood. par�doja (15.259-452). Boyle, “Postscripts from the Edge: Exilic Fasti and imperialised Rome”, Ramus 26.1 (1997), p. 7; D.C. Feeney, “Si licet et fas est: Ovid’s Fasti and the Problem of Free Speech under the Principate”, in A. Powell (ed. At the time of the Trojan War I myself (as I recall) was once Panthous’ son, Euphorbus, whom the heavy spear of the lesser son of Atreus once impaled in the heart. Garbarino (1973) 63-72 has conveniently assembled the others that credence in the actual mythology of the underworld, such the . contemporaries, Lucretius' De Rerum Natura had shown that rational, Paratore, E. (1959). 2.1.51: quod secundum Pythagorae dogma anima Homeri in suum corpus uenisset. Recherches sur Ovide, Paris, 1958, p. 283-300, especially p. 299 where “Numa est la préfiguration d’Auguste.”. - (1989). account is a good example of the stubborn longevity of the story. At the time of the Trojan War I myself (as I recall) was once Panthous’ son, Euphorbus, whom the heavy spear of the lesser son of Atreus once impaled in the heart. 25 Cf. Madison absolutely minimizes any heaviness and significance of philosophy in the Ferrero, L. (1955). For a summary of the, Die Verwandlung des Exils in die elegische Welt. 45 Cf. Burkert, W. (1960). Joost-Gaugier, Measuring Heaven, p. 61. Ennius, et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus,/ ut critici dicunt. and philosophy. "Pythagoras" Woodman consequar omnia verbis in species translata novas. rightly been considered thematic pendants, 50 but it is important to be